PATHOLOGY


Schedule - Pathology 2021/2022 (pdf)

                                                General and Systemic Pathology
 
OBJECTIVE

The aim of the Pathology course is to teach students basic pathology and to introduce them to the study of various diseases from an anatomic and a pathophysiologic point of view, with a strong emphasis on clinical-pathologic correlations.
 
Pathology forms the bridge between basic medical sciences, such as anatomy, histology, biochemistry and physiology on one hand side and clinical medicine on the other.  During this course the students will learn to recognize the abnormal morphological changes in cells, tissues and organs, and link these changes to the abnormal functions of the affected structures. The students will also study the pathogenesis of various pathologic lesions, i.e. the mechanisms which lead to pathologic changes. The clinical consequences of altered morphology and function will be included to emphasize the clinical orientation of entire course.
 
 The course will be presented in form of lectures, seminars, and practicals. It will include the study of autopsies, microscopic slides, visual and textual material stored in an electronic form and the required textbooks.
 
SCHEDULE
 
LECTURES 70 hours
SEMINARS 70 hours
PRACTICALS 70 hours
  210 hours
 
 
EXAMS

Students knowledge will be tested in a written form.
There will be two mandatory partial exams (P1 and P2) .
The first partial exam (P1) includes general pathology, cardiovascular system, the respiratory system and the hematopoietic and lymphoid system.
The second partial exam (P2) includes the rest of the systemic pathology.
Each partial exam test has 150 questions. The first 30 questions (practical part of the exam) relate to the electronic images shown during the course. The remaining 120 questions form the theoretical part of the exam. The students need to correctly answer at least 60% of questions to pass the partial exams. In
Each exam will contribute equally to total grade.
 
 
Results from partial exams, taken during the course are valid only till the end of the respective academic year.
 
An example on how final grade is calculated is given here as follows:
 
Grades are calculated based on the presented point cuts achieved on each exam:
 
60-70%= sufficient (2)
71-80%= good (3)
81-90%= very good (4)
91-100%= excellent (5),
 
 
CLASS ATTENDANCE
 
Class attendance is mandatory (including lectures, seminars and practicals). If students miss a class, they are required to have a colloquium with a teaching assistant. Students who have not met the attendance requirement including the make-up colloquia will not be admitted to partial examinations and final test.
 
 
EXAM TERMS:
 
 
 
LITERATURE
 
  • Kumar V, Abbas A, Aster J: Robbins Basic Pathology, 10th edition, Elservier Saunders, 2017.
  • All the images from the practical part of course
 
L1, S1 - CELL INJURY, CELL DEATH, AND ADAPTATIONS I: Overview of cellular responses to stress and noxious stimuli, Causes of cell injury, Sequence of events in injury and cell death (page 31-41)
L2, S2 - CELL INJURY, CELL DEATH, AND ADAPTATIONS: II: Mechanisms of cell injury and cell deaths, Cellular adaptations to stress, Intracellular accumulations, Pathologic calcification, Cellular aging (page 41-56)
L3, S3 – INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR I: Overview of inflammation, definitions and general features, Causes of inflammation, Recognitions of microbes and damaged cells, Acute inflammation, Mediators of inflammation (page 57-77)
L4, S4 – INFLAMMATION AND REPAIR II: Morphologic patterns of acute inflammation, Outcomes of acute inflammation, Chronic inflammation, Systemic effects of inflammation, Tissue repair (page 78-95)
L5, S5- HEMODYNAMIC DISORDERS, THROMBOEMBOLISM AND SHOCK Hyperemia and congestion; Edema; Haemorrhage, Hemostasis and thrombosis: Thrombosis, Embolism, Infarction, Shock (page 97-101; 106-119).
L6, S6 – DISEASES OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM I: The normal immune response, Cells and tissues of the immune system, Overview of lymphocyte activation and adaptive immune responses, Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated tissue injury (page121-145), Rejection of transplants (162-168)
L7, S7 – DISEASES OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM II: Autoimmune diseases, Immunodeficiency syndromes, Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Amyloidosis (page 145-162; 168-187) 
L8, S8 - NEOPLASIA I: Nomenclature, Characteristics of benign and malignant neoplasms, Epidemiology, Cancer genes, Genetic lesions in cancer, Carcinogenesis: a multistep process (189-204)
L9, S9 - NEOPLASIA II:, Hallmarks of cancer: Self-sufficiency in growth signals (p.205); Insensitivity to growth inhibitora signals: tumor suppressor genes (p. 208-213), Susteined angiogenesis (p.219-228); Clinical aspects of neoplasia (page 235-242)
L10, S10 - GENETIC AND PEDIATRIC DISEASES: Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (p. 247-248); Familial Hypercholesterolemia (p.248-250), Cystic fibrosis (p.250-254); Phenylketonuria (p.254-255); Complex multigenic disorders (p.261-262); Trisomy 21 (p.264-266), Klinefelter syndrome (p.267), Turner syndrome (p. 267-269); Triplet repeat mutations: Fragile x syndrome (p.269-270); Congenital anomalies (p.273-277); Perinatal infections, prematurity and fetal growth restrictions, RDS, Necrotizing enterocolitis, SIDS, Fetal hydrops, Tumors and tumor like lesions of infancy and childhood (p.273-291)
L11, S11 – BLOOD VESSELS: Structure and function of blood vessels, Congenital anomalies, Hypertensive vascular disease, Vascular wall response to injury, Arteriosclerosis, Atherosclerosis, Aneurysms and dissections,Vasculitis, Disorders of blood vessels hyper reactivity, Veins and lypmphatics, Tumors (page 361-364, 366-391)
 
L12, S12 – HEART  I: Heart failure, Congenital heart diseases, Ischemic heart diseases,  Arrhythmias  (400-420)
L13, S13 - HEART II: Hypertensive heart disease, Valvular heart disease, Cardiomyopathies and myocarditis, Pericardial disease, Cardiac tumors (page 420-439)
L14, S14 - THE HEMATOPOIETIC AND LYMPHOID SYSTEM I: Red cell disorder; Bleeding disorders; Complication of transfusion; Disorders of the spleen and thymus (page 442-459; 485-494)
L15, S15 - THE HEMATOPOIETIC AND LYMPHOID SYSTEM II: White cell disorders (page 459-485)
L16, S16 - LUNG I: Atelectasis (Collapse); ARDS; Obstructive vs Restrictive pulmonary diseases; Obstructive lung (airway) diseases; Chronic interstitial (Restrictive infiltrative) lung diseases; Pulmonary diseases of vascular origin (page 495-519)
L17, S17 - LUNG II:  Pulmonary infections; Lung tumors; Pleural lesions; Lesions of the upper respiratory tract (519-548)
L18, S18 – KIDNEYS AND ITS COLLECTING SYSTEM I: Clinical manifestations of renal diseases; Glomerular diseases (page 549-564)
L19, S19 - KIDNEYS AND ITS COLLECTING SYSTEM II: Diseases affecting tubuls and interstitium; Diseases involving blood vessels; Chronic kidney diseases; Cystic diseases of the kidney; Urinary outflow obstruction; Congenital and developmental anomalies; Neoplasms (page 564-581)
L20, S20 – ORAL CAVITIES AND GI TRACT I: Oral cavity (page 583-590), Esophagus (page 590-598), Stomach (page 598-607)
L21, S21- ORAL CAVITIES AND GI TRACT II: Small and large intestine (page 607-634), Appendix (634-636)
L22, S22 – THE LIVER AND BILIARY SYSTEM I: General features of liver diseases, Infectious disorders, Autoimmune hepatitis, Drug and toxin induced liver injury, Alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Inherited metabolic liver diseases (page 637-659)
L23, S23 – THE LIVER AND BILIARY SYSTEM II: Cholestasis syndromes; Circulatory disorders; Nodules and tumors; Gallstone diseases; Cholecystitis; Carcinoma of the gallbladder (page 659-677)
L24, S24 – THE PANCREAS: Congenital anomalies; Pancreatitis; Pancreatic neoplasms (page 679-689)
L25, S25 – THE MALE GENITAL SYSTEM AND LOWER URINARY TRACT: Penis; Scrotum, testis and epididymis; Prostate; Ureter, Bladder and Urethra; Sexually transmitted diseases (page 691-712)
L26, S26 – THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM I: Vulva; Vagina; Cervix; Uterus (page 713-726)
L27, S27 – THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM II: Fallopian tubes; Ovaries; Diseases of pregnancy (page 726-736)
L28, S28- THE BREAST: Clinical presentations of breast disease; Inflammatory processes; Stromal neoplasms; Benign epithelial lesions; Carcinoma (page 736-747)
L29, S29- THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM I: Thyroid (page 755-769); Parathyroid glands (page 769-772)
L30, S30 - THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM II: Pituitary (page 750-755); Endocrine pancreas (page 772-784); Adrenal cortex; Adrenal medulla; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes (page 784-795)
L31, S31 – THE SKIN: Acute Inflammatory dermatoses; Chronic Inflammatory dermatoses; Infectious dermatoses; Blistering (Bullous) disorders; Tumors of the skin (page 889-908)
L32, S32 – BONES AND JOINTS I: Basic structure and function of the bone; Congenital disorders of Bone; Metabolic disorders of Bone; Paget disease of bone; Fractures; Osteonecrosis; Osteomyelitis; Bone tumors and tumor like lesions (page 797-817)
L33, S33 – BONES AND JOINTS II: Joints (page 817-827); Soft tissue tumors (page 827-833) + selected topics from PERIPHERAL NERVES AND MUSCLES (Disorders of neuromuscular junction: Myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton syndrome page 839; Disorders of skeletal muscle: Dystropathies: Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy page 842-843; Peripheral nerve sheet tumors: Schwannomas and Neurofibromatosis Type 2, Neurofibromatosis Type I, Malignant peripheral nerve sheet tumors page 846-847).
L34, S34 – THE NERVOUS SYSTEM I: Edema; Herniation and hydrocephalus; Cerebrovascular diseases; Central nervous system trauma; Congenital malformation and perinatal brain injury; Infections of the Nervous system (page 850-870)
L35, S35 - THE NERVOUS SYSTEM II: Genetic metabolic diseases; Acquired metabolic and toxic disturbances; Neurodegenerative diseases; Tumors (page 870-888) Print page